How to Do Long Exposure Photography?

How to Do Long Exposure Photography?

If you’re interested in learning how to do some long exposure photography, then you have probably by now seen some of the amazing effects that can be achieved with this technique. In this guide you will learn how these effects are produced and also some tips and tricks to get help you get started straight away.

If you are a newbie in Photography maybe you can try an Udemy course to learn more tips and work from home with your camera. Here are some good courses you can choose from:

https://www.udemy.com/newborn-photography-secrets/

https://www.udemy.com/photography-masterclass-your-complete-guide-to-photography/

https://www.udemy.com/get-your-photos-published/

 

Long exposure basically means slowing down the shutter speed of your camera, hence creating a longer exposure. When taking a photo on your camera, the shutter opens for a brief moment, allowing light to fall onto the image sensor, and then shuts again. The light that is absorbed by the image sensor in that time (exposure) is then converted into an image. Shutter speed, the amount of time the shutter is open for, will have a dramatic effect on the final image. To produce a crystal clear photo of a person or object in motion, the shutter speed needs to be extremely fast, so the image sensor only receives a single moment of the objects motion. Otherwise if the shutter speed is too slow, it will absorb information of the object/subject’s entire motion whilst the shutter is open and then try and combine it into a single photograph, resulting in a blurred object/subject.
In most cases you will always want to shoot with a fast shutter speed to ensure that everything in your shot is clear. It also stops any blurring from occurring because of camera shake from your hands. But there are some cases in which a slow shutter speed is preferable and can also create some very beautiful effects. Before we get to the effects, I will just briefly go over how a slow shutter speed can be helpful in certain situations.
Slowing down the shutter speed can be extremely helpful in low light conditions. Slowing down the shutter speed means that the image sensor is exposed to larger amount of light than a fast shutter speed. This means that a longer shutter speed will produce a lighter/brighter image. Therefore if you are shooting in low light increasing your shutter speed can be very helpful, as long as there are no moving elements in the shot.
But what you should also be aware of is that the same thing occurs in normal daylight conditions. Therefore slowing down your shutter speed in this case will also increase the lightness and will result in a washed out image. Therefore you need to compensate for that by adjusting the other elements of the exposure triangle, Aperture size and ISO. You can read more about how these relate to each other by clicking here. This will still only allow you slow your shutter speed to a certain extent, and if you want to slow it further you will need to employ the use of a filter (an extra piece of  darkened glass placed in front of the lens) to limit the amount of light allowed into the camera.  But that’s enough technical information, let’s get onto the effects!

Smooth Wispy Water

This is one of the most common effects, you will usually see it employed on waterfalls. It results in a nice smooth, wispy water effect opposed to the chaotic nature that a waterfall is like in real life. Here is a side by side comparison between a fast shutter speed and a slow shutter speed
This effect can be achieved by just slowing the shutter speed very slightly to about ½ a second. You can also use this effect on any body of water to smooth out waves, ripples, turbulence etc. and produce a very dreamy, smooth effect.

Light Trails

This is also a very common effect and quite possibly the coolest. This is done at night so you can often increase the shutter speed for much longer periods of time without risking washing out the image. This can be used on any glowing object at night, from car headlights to fireworks and even the stars in the night sky. Just use your imagination for this and experiment.
Wispy clouds

Similar to smoothing the water, you can also produce a similar effect with clouds. You will usually have to set the shutter speed for a more lengthy amount of time, in which case you may need to employ the use of a ND filter to avoid overexposing your picture.
One last thing I should mention is the use of a tripod. If you want to do long exposure photography a tripod is a must. You simply can’t hold your hands still enough to get a clear shot, if your using a shutter speed any longer than ½ a second.
That should be enough to get you started. Just get out there and start experimenting. The only limit with this is your imagination. I would absolutely love it if you shared your long exposure pictures with us here, so feel free to share in the comments below. Also please share or like this article below if you have found it useful.

How does a mirrorless camera work?

How does a mirrorless camera work?

When most people decide to start their journey in photography, they start snapping away on there nice shiny new DSLR and trying to learn all these fancy new controls. But most don’t even understand how there camera actually works. It didn’t used to matter, because if you wanted to get serious about photography you went and bought a DSLR and that was it. But now a new type of professional camera has emerged on the market. The mirrorless camera. But to decide what type you should choose you need to understand, how does a mirrorless camera work and what are it’s advantages.
Lets begin with the construction and basics about how a DSLR camera works, because once you know how a DSLR works it’s easy to understand how a mirrorless camera works.

How does a Mirrored camera Work?

Ok so lets assume you know about the lens on the front of your camera. Once the light passes through the lens of your camera it enters the body of your DSLR. And this is where the magic happens. Upon entering the camera, a mirror diverts the light upwards towards your viewfinder which allows you to see what your taking pictures of. If you have a DSLR, if you take the lens off, you can actually see this mirror. When you then press the shutter button, the mirror flips up out of the way to allow light to pass through onto the image sensor. This is what gives you that loud click when you take a photo.So how does a mirrorless camera work?

Well a mirrorless camera, as the name would suggest, is basically a DSLR without the bulky mirror system. The light just passes straight through past the shutter and onto the image sensor. Mirrorless cameras still have all the same controls as a DSLR, as well as Interchangeable lenses, but are also smaller and lighter. There are quite a variety of these cameras available today and you will find they have a variety of different names.
In terms of function, the main thing you will notice that sets these apart is the viewfinder, if they have one. Alot of the mirrorless camera’s don’t have viewfinders and if they do, they are electronic viewfinders (EV). This means that the image you see in the viewfinder is the same as you would see on the live view LCD. Which means unlike DSLR’s, you’ll actually be able to see what the image sensor see’s, through the viewfinder.
One thing people will often worry about is that the image sensor size won’t be as big, because the camera is so small and compact. But becasue of the absence of the bulky mirror system, they often have the same image sensors as the larger DSLRs. So no image quality is lost in return for compactness.
So in conclusion, mirrorless camera’s work by omitting the bulky mirror system of a DSLR, resulting in a lighter and more compact alternative, without sacrificing any image quality. It’s a great choice for anyone that wants the power of a DSLR in a smaller and more convenient package. As always you can find more detailed infromation over at our friends at wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirrorless_interchangeable-lens_camera

How do cameras focus?

How do cameras focus?

Photography Basics

Nowadays we often take the autofocus feature of our camera’s granted. Almost every camera you can buy these days has this useful, time-saving feature built in. Often we just use the autofocus feature without even thinking about itand just let the camera do its thing, but i couldn’t help wondering, how do cameras focus and how can they tell when they are in focus?

To explain how a camera focuses we will have to take a trip back to some high school physics. Now you may remember that a beam of lights path can be manipulated, depending on what sort of material it passes through. For example you would see this quite clearly if you look through a glass full of water. The light will get all distorted and things start to look wierd. This is because the path of light will bend when it passes through curved materials such as a glass of water or even a camera lens perhaps?

But how does this bending of light our camera focus. Lets take a look at a very basic version of how a camera works.
As you can see light travels from a point and passes through the lens and then out the other side and onto the image senosor of the camera. The problem is if we just had a normal flat piece of glass, the light would be all scattered and we would end up with a very small amount of light hitting the image sensor and there would be light going everywhere which would equal one huge blurry mess.

But if we now put a glass lens in front that can bend the light we would end up with something very different. Now you can see we get light omitting from a single point traveling through the lens and converging back into a single point. If the image sensor is at the exact spot that these points of light converge, we get a image that is in focus. If the sensor is either closer or further away than that point, we get a blurry, or out of focus image.

The problem is, when we move closer or further away from an object, this focus point will change. That is why we need to adjust the posiiotn of the lens to get the focus point back into the right spot (on the image sensor). This is done my moving the lens closer or further away from the image sensor. You can get more detailed information about lenses and optics at Wikipedia

For us, we can instantly tell if an image is in focus, because we can see and recognise if something is sharp and clear or blurry. But how does a piece of electonic equipment know what it is seeing. There are two main methods used to in cameras for autofocus.

Active Autofocus

This method relies on using Infrared light or sonar waves to calculate the distance of the subject that you are shooting. The camera shoots either Infrared light or sound waves at the subject, which will then bounce or reflect back off the subject back to the camera. By timing how long this takes the camera can calculate the distance the subject is away. The camera can then calculate where the lens needs to be (focal length) to get the  best focus and sharpness for that distance. This however is not a very widely used technology anymore and the most common method of autofocus now is known as,

Passive Autofocus

Nowadays the most common method of determining focus uses computer analysis techniques of the image that the camera see’s. It does this by anlaysing the contrast between neighbouring pixels and hereby determining the sharness of the image. You can see in the example below how this works:

As you can see in the image above, we have an out of focus image. It is quite blurry and hard to make out what the image is. Now if we were to look at a very small slice of this image we would see something like this:

As you can see the colours of each individual pixel are quite similar to it’s neighbour and their are no abrupt changes in colour i.e. it has a very low contrast and sharpness.
If however we took that same image and it was in focus, we can now see something completely different.

If we now take a look at the same slice of the image we can see this:

As you can see in this set of pixels there is a very sharp and abrupt change in colour intensity, which suggests that the image is in focus. The camera lens will move the lens in and out untill it finds the highest level of contrast between pixels.

 

 

 

Exposure Triangle in Photography

What is the Exposure Triangle in Photography

If your just getting started in photography or your just beginning to make the shift over to using the manual mode on you camera, you will quite quickly realise you have no idea what your doing and what all the settings do. It can be quite overwhelming. But it is well worth the effort to learn, because once you know how to control your camera, you can really begin to unlock the creative potential of your camera. The good news is the basic technical principles of producing a good looking exposure are quite simple. There are only three main elements that combine together to create your exposure. They are all linked and affect each other, hence we have given it the term, the exposure triangle.

So what is the Exposure Triangle?

Well as i mentioned before there are three elements that combine to create the exposure triangle. They are as follows

ISO – The digital camera’s sensitivity to lightAperture  – The size of the opening of the lens that allows light inShutter Speed – The amount of time the camera shutter is open for

Each of these elements work in tandem to create your final exposure. Making an adjustment of one element will usually require an adjustment of one of the other two elements to ensure a good exposure. Here is a very quick rundown of what each element of the exposure triangle does and what effect it has on exposure.

 

ISO

 
As previously stated, ISO is a measure of the camera’s sensitivity to light. Increasing the ISO will increase the brightness of the exposure and lowering will decrease the brightness. A side effect of ISO is when it is increased by a considerable amount it will begin to introduce noise or graininess to the image lowering the quality of the image.

 

Aperture

 
Aperture is the size of the opening on your lens. Opening it wider, quite obviously lets more light in, while closing it smaller will decrease the amount of light reaching the camera sensor. That means the exposure will increase in brightness and decrease in brightness respectively. The aperture also controls the depth of field of your image.

 

Shutter Speed

 
Shutter speed as the name suggest is a measure of how long the shutter stays open for. The longer it is open for, the more light will come in, increasing the brightness of the exposure and vice versa. Shutter speed also affects how motion is captured by the camera. A fast shutter speed will “freeze” the subject that is in motion, whilst a slower shutter speed will produce a motion blur of the moving subject, because it is taking in all the information of the motion of the subject over the period of time the shutter is open for, and placing it all in one image.
Click on each of the headings above to find out more about each respective element.

 

Combining it all together

Now that you know what everything does, its time to bring it all together. Mastering how to combine all these elements together takes a lot of practice. Lucky for you, with the invention of the digital camera this has become a lot easier, now you can take as many rubbish pictures as you want and you won’t waste any film, or have to wait to get them developed to see how you went. Instant feedback really helps the learning process. Mastering exposure is nothing more than a fine balancing act between each element.
One way you can approach it is to first decide what the most important factor is of your shot. Do want to have a high or shallow depth of field? are you shooting  moving subjects?
If you want to shoot something in motion you will have to have a fast shutter speed, therefore less light will be allowed into the lens, decreasing the brightness of your exposure. Therefor you can compensate for this by opening the aperture wider, which will in turn let more light in, or increasing the ISO setting.
Like wise if you are shooting a landscape, the Depth of Field might be your most important factor in the shot, therefor you would first adjust the aperture to get your required depth of field and then adjust the shutter speed or ISO to compensate.

 

 

 

Tips to models before a photo shoot

Tips to models before a photo shot

Before making a photo shoot, photographers we have to prepare them even before they happen. The same goes for the person being photographed / model. Most professional models know from experience what has to be done in terms of preparation before a photo shoot, but the same does not happen with inexperienced models or people who only occasionally do a session.

If you do not have much experience in modeling, here are some aspects you should consider to prepare for the shoot. Note that most of these aspects are more directed to female models. The more aspects you can follow your photos come out better and more confident you will feel in front of a camera.

Depilation: Make sure you take care of your hair removal. Make it at least 2-3 days before the meeting. So will allow any skin irritation disappears by the time of session.

Nails: Treat their nails. Make sure that the nails go well cared for. In short, colorless preferably, this allows coloring the nails in height according to the intended styling session. If pose with bare feet do not forget to also treat their toenails.

Hair: Take extra good care. See whether to dye your hair in order to hide any color of the root that is not according to the color you have at that time. This is no time for experiments, such as trying out new colors, new style, etc .. Bring natural and free hair (not caught) or use a hair straightener,  unless the photographer or agency it has given other instructions.

Teeth: Most likely in any photo you show your smile, then check the condition of their teeth.

Eat: eat something before the photo shoot, some sessions may take some time and you need energy.

Water: One of the secrets of beautiful skin is to be well hydrated. If you do not regularly drink plenty of water a week before the session. This will help moisturize the skin.

Sleep: Get plenty of rest the night before your session. Nothing better than a person full of energy during the session. Land Although the photographer can guide the poses you should do is not poorly thought out practice at home in front of a mirror. Train also various expressions (smiling, seductive, happy, sad, melancholy, etc.). You can always turn to magazines to look for ideas.

Sun: Between now and your session note its exposure to the sun to avoid skin tags. Consider using sunscreen on the skin.

Skin Care: The day before the session should exfoliate the body and face and moisturise the skin using a non-greasy lotion.

Clothing: Avoid stripes, patterns or pictures on clothing. Simple clothes, smooth and solid color are the best. Very confusing clothes tend to divert attention away from the model, unless the clothes the main objective of the session.

Before the session does not wear tight clothing to prevent skin tags that take some time to disappear. Use a shirt to prevent the change of clothing does not damage the hair and make-up. Also bring a blanket / towel / robe to keep warm, if necessary, this will depend on the type of photos that will make and / or the local session.

Deodorant: If you use the session a sleeveless top, do not use deodorant, as it will appear on the photo. If you wear perfume make sure it is very light, because photographic studios are not always great and strong perfume can bother the photographer and the others around him.

Avoid Experiences: I know that we are often tempted to use new hair and skin care products, but before the session is not the time for experiments. You may have an unwanted surprise. Products that had never been used can cause an allergic reaction. Use what you usually use.

Make-up: Talk to the photographer to know if it will be in session an artist make-up or hair. If there bring clean hair and no makeup at all. Your face should go clean and without any trace of make-up.

Lips: Avoid dry lips, put Vaseline on your lips before bed and in the morning session.

Eyebrows: Have your eyebrows with the desired shape.

Tidy up: From head to toe you should be at your best and clean (nails, hair, hair, nose hair, etc.).

72 hours before evites photo shoot the following foods (you can cause oily skin and some swelling):

– Red meat

– Caffeine

– Spicy foods

Skin: coconut oil is great for keeping your skin glowing.

Music: Bring your own music. The music you like to listen will help her relax.

Be on time and do not be late.

 

Photography Tips That Anyone Can Use Today

Photography Pointer That Anyone Can Utilize Today

宗穎&家琪 結婚_1570
Source: Flickr

A typical pastime that lots of people have is photography. Photography lets individuals express their innovative genius by utilizing cams to catch minutes on film. For photographers, their pastime is not a simple point and click job, as they consider various lighting effects and focus strategies. This post will offer you info on photography.

Shoot during the “golden hours,” specifically if you are shooting human topics. The time around dawn and sunset are named “golden hours” due to the fact that the color of the light makes things appear like they are radiant. This light also matches human skin, making human topics appear to look much better than they would in images taken at other times of day.

Compare electronic camera costs when you are in the marketplace for a brand-new one. A great rule is to choose initially what make, design, and showcases you will require. Then you can proceed with discovering the best deal on the electronic camera. Ensure you inspect local electronic camera sellers as well as huge online outlets.

Be sure your picture has a strong centerpiece. Without an excellent centerpiece your photographs will wind up looking empty, leaving the eye with nowhere to rest. Your viewers will be more pleased of a photo that has a clear focus, even if you are shooting a landscape or other large setting.

The web is the best and least expensive way to aid you improve your photographic abilities. There are a million and one blog sites and photography resource websites that can assist you take much better pictures. You can find detailed tutorials and lessons, technical information and a lots of inspiration– all totally free.

When you are first beginning with photography, you do not require the very best and most costly video camera devices offered. As you advance with your skills, you can upgrade your devices. If you are just starting and beginning to hone your abilities, benefit from offers provided by more advanced photographers who are upgrading their devices.

When photographing with a flash, be really certain about where you point your flash. Keep in mind that if your flash goes off straight at or on your topic, it will trigger obvious glare in the resulting image. To get the most from your flash without ruining your photo, it is best to tilt your cam upward a little.

A great photography pointer is to speak to as lots of photographers as you can to learn their techniques. Learning on your own is an excellent course, however it’s always useful to find out about what other professional photographers are doing. You may find out refined tricks that can truly improve your photographs.

In photography, ensure that your main focus is on the quality and not the amount of the images that you take. It is constantly better for you to obtain ten excellent shots than one hundred average shots in a day. Quality is always the better option.

Moreover, photography is a common pastime for many individuals. They use photography to express their creativity by catching moments on film with cams. Photographers take light and focus into account when creating pictures, making it more involved than easy photo taking. Make use of the photography details in this post to your advantage when practicing photography.